Monday, October 26, 2015

Known and Probable Human Carcinogens

သိထားျပီးႏွင့္ အလားအလာရွိတဲ့ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစႏိုင္တဲ့ဓါတ္မ်ား

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ကင္ဆာသုေတသနဌာနနဲ႔ US National Toxicology Program (NTP) အေမရိကန္ အမ်ိဳးသား အဆိပ္အေတာက္ေဗဒ ပရိုဂရမ္ရဲ႕သုေတသနကိုေရးပါမယ္။

က်ေနာ္တို႔ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္မွာ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစႏိုင္တာေတြရွိေနတယ္။  Carcinogen ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစတဲ့ဓါတ္ဆိုတာ လူ႔ DNA မ်ိဳးဗီဇကိုေျပာင္းလဲေစတာမ်ိဳးကိုေခၚတယ္။ မိဘေတြဆီကေနရတာလည္းရွိတယ္။ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ကေန ရလာတာလည္း ရွိတယ္။ International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ရဲ႕ ကင္ဆာသုေတသန ၃ဝ ႏွစ္ၾကာ ေတြ႔ရွိခ်က္ေတြအရ သတ္မွတ္ထားတဲ့အမ်ိဳးအမည္ေပါင္း ၉ဝဝ ေက်ာ္ရွိတယ္။

Environmental factors ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္အခ်က္အလက္ေတြကေတာ့
1. Lifestyle factors လူေနမႈပံုစံ = အဟာအာဟာရ၊ ေဆးလိပ္နဲ႔ လကိုယ္လက္လႈပ္ရွားမႈနည္းတာေတြ၊
2. Naturally occurring exposures သဘာဝအရရွိေနေတာေတြ = ခရမ္းလြန္ေရာင္ျခည္၊ ဓါတ္ေငြ႔တခ်ိဳ႕နဲ႔ ကူးစက္ႏိုင္တာေတြ၊
3. Medical treatments ေဆးကုသမႈကေနရတာမ်ိဳး = ခီမိုသာရာပီ၊ ေဟာ္မုန္းေဆး၊ ခုခံအားက်ေဆး၊
4. Workplace exposures လုပ္ငန္းခြင္၊
5. Household exposures အိမ္ထဲမွာနဲ႔
6. Pollution ပတ္ဝန္းက်ညစ္ညမ္းမႈေတြျဖစ္ၾကတယ္။

Known human carcinogens သိထားျပီး လူကိုကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစႏိုင္တာေတြ
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans အုပ္စု (၁)
• Acetaldehyde (from consuming alcoholic beverages)
• Acheson process, occupational exposure associated with
• Acid mists, strong inorganic
• Aflatoxins
• Alcoholic beverages
• Aluminum production
• 4-Aminobiphenyl
• Areca nut
• Aristolochic acid (and plants containing it)
• Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
• Asbestos (all forms) and mineral substances (such as talc or vermiculite) that contain asbestos
• Auramine production
• Azathioprine
• Benzene
• Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine
• Benzo[a]pyrene
• Beryllium and beryllium compounds
• Betel quid, with or without tobacco
• Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)
• Busulfan
• 1,3-Butadiene
• Cadmium and cadmium compounds
• Chlorambucil
• Chlornaphazine
• Chromium (VI) compounds
• Clonorchis sinensis (infection with), also known as the Chinese liver fluke
• Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion
• Coal gasification
• Coal-tar distillation
• Coal-tar pitch
• Coke production
• Cyclophosphamide
• Cyclosporine
• 1,2-Dichloropropane
• Diethylstilbestrol
• Engine exhaust, diesel
• Epstein-Barr virus (infection with)
• Erionite
• Estrogen postmenopausal therapy
• Estrogen-progestogen postmenopausal therapy (combined)
• Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (combined) (Note: There is also convincing evidence in humans that these agents confer a protective effect against cancer in the endometrium and ovary)
• Ethanol in alcoholic beverages
• Ethylene oxide
• Etoposide
• Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin
• Fission products, including strontium-90
• Fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole
• Formaldehyde
• Haematite mining (underground)
• Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
• Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with)
• Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with)
• Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (infection with)
• Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 (infection with) (Note: The HPV types that have been classified as carcinogenic to humans can differ by an order of magnitude in risk for cervical cancer)
• Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) (infection with)
• Ionizing radiation (all types)
• Iron and steel founding (workplace exposure)
• Isopropyl alcohol manufacture using strong acids
• Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (infection with)
• Leather dust
• Magenta production
• Melphalan
• Methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) plus ultraviolet A radiation, also known as PUVA
• 4,4'-Methylenebis(chloroaniline) (MOCA)
• Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated
• MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents
• 2-Naphthylamine
• Neutron radiation
• Nickel compounds
• N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
• Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with), also known as the Southeast Asian liver fluke
• Outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter in it
• Painter (workplace exposure as a)
• 3,4,5,3',4'-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126)
• 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
• Phenacetin (and mixtures containing it)
• Phosphorus-32, as phosphate
• Plutonium
• Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like, with a Toxicity Equivalency Factor according to WHO (PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189)
• Radioiodines, including iodine-131
• Radionuclides, alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)
• Radionuclides, beta-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)
• Radium-224 and its decay products
• Radium-226 and its decay products
• Radium-228 and its decay products
• Radon-222 and its decay products
• Rubber manufacturing industry
• Salted fish (Chinese-style)
• Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)
• Semustine (methyl-CCNU)
• Shale oils
• Silica dust, crystalline, in the form of quartz or cristobalite
• Solar radiation
• Soot (as found in workplace exposure of chimney sweeps)
• Sulfur mustard
• Tamoxifen (Note: There is also conclusive evidence that tamoxifen reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in breast cancer patients)
• 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
• Thiotepa
• Thorium-232 and its decay products
• Tobacco, smokeless
• Tobacco smoke, secondhand
• Tobacco smoking
• ortho-Toluidine
• Treosulfan
• Trichloroethylene
• Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, including UVA, UVB, and UVC rays
• Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
• Vinyl chloride
• Wood dust
• X- and Gamma-radiation

National Toxicology Program 13th Report on Carcinogens
Known to be human carcinogens သိထားျပီး လူကိုကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစႏိုင္တာေတြ
• Aflatoxins
• Alcoholic beverage consumption
• 4-Aminobiphenyl
• Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin
• Aristolochic acids
• Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
• Asbestos
• Azathioprine
• Benzene
• Benzidine
• Beryllium and beryllium compounds
• Bis(chloromethyl) ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether
• 1,3-Butadiene
• 1,4-Butanediol dimethylsulfonate (also known as busulfan)
• Cadmium and cadmium compounds
• Chlorambucil
• 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU)
• Chromium hexavalent compounds
• Coal tar pitches
• Coal tars
• Coke oven emissions
• Cyclophosphamide
• Cyclosporin A
• Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
• Dyes metabolized to benzidine
• Erionite
• Estrogens, steroidal
• Ethylene oxide
• Formaldehyde
• Hepatitis B virus
• Hepatitis C virus
• Human papilloma viruses: some genital-mucosal types
• Melphalan
• Methoxsalen with ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA)
• Mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated)
• Mustard gas
• 2-Naphthylamine
• Neutrons
• Nickel compounds
• Oral tobacco products
• Radon
• Silica, crystalline (respirable size)
• Solar radiation
• Soots
• Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid
• Sunlamps or sunbeds, exposure to
• Tamoxifen
• 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); "dioxin"
• Thiotepa
• Thorium dioxide
• Tobacco smoke, environmental
• Tobacco, smokeless
• Tobacco smoking
• o‑Toluidine
• Vinyl chloride
• Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, broad spectrum
• Wood dust
• X-radiation and gamma radiation

Probable carcinogens ကင္ဆာျဖစ္စရာအလားအလာရွိတာေတြ
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans အုပ္စု (၂ က)
• Acrylamide
• Adriamycin (doxorubicin)
• Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
• Art glass, glass containers, and press ware (manufacture of)
• Azacitidine
• Biomass fuel (primarily wood), emissions from household combustion
• Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU), also known as carmustine
• Captafol
• Carbon electrode manufacture
• Chloral
• Chloral hydrate
• Chloramphenicol
• alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures)
• 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)
• 4-Chloro-ortho-toluidine
• Chlorozotocin
• Cisplatin
• Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide
• Creosotes
• Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene
• Diazinon
• Dibenz[a,j]acridine
• Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
• Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
• Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
• Diethyl sulfate
• Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
• 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
• Dimethyl sulfate
• Epichlorohydrin
• Ethyl carbamate (urethane)
• Ethylene dibromide
• N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea
• Frying, emissions from high-temperature
• Glycidol
• Glyphosate
• Hairdresser or barber (workplace exposure as)
• Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 68 (infection with)
• Indium phosphide
• IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
• Lead compounds, inorganic
• Malaria (caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum)
• Malathion
• Mate, hot
• Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)
• 5-Methoxypsoralen
• Methyl methanesulfonate
• N-Methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
• N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea
• Nitrate or nitrite (ingested) under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation
• 6-Nitrochrysene
• Nitrogen mustard
• 1-Nitropyrene
• N-Nitrosodiethylamine
• N-Nitrosodimethylamine
• 2-Nitrotoluene
• Non-arsenical insecticides (workplace exposures in spraying and application of)
• Petroleum refining (workplace exposures in)
• Pioglitazone
• Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
• Procarbazine hydrochloride
• 1,3-Propane sultone
• Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption
• Styrene-7,8-oxide
• Teniposide
• Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
• Tetrafluoroethylene
• Trichloroethylene
• 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
• Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
• Vinyl bromide (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl bromide should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)
• Vinyl fluoride (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)

National Toxicology Program 13th Report on Carcinogens
Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens လူကိုကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစႏိုင္တယ္လို႔ က်ိဳးေၾကာင္းဆီေလွ်ာ္စြာ မွန္းဆရတာေတြ
• Acetaldehyde
• 2-Acetylaminofluorene
• Acrylamide
• Acrylonitrile
• Adriamycin® (doxorubicin hydrochloride)
• 2-Aminoanthraquinone
• o-Aminoazotoluene
• 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone
• 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone
• 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ)
• 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx)
• 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)
• 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)
• Amitrole
• o-Anisidine and its hydrochloride
• Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine®, 5-AzaC)
• Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride
• Benz[a]anthracene
• Benzo[b]fluoranthene
• Benzo[j]fluoranthene
• Benzo[k]fluoranthene
• Benzo[a]pyrene
• Benzotrichloride
• 2, 2-bis-(bromoethyl)-1,3-propanediol (technical grade)
• Bromodichloromethane
• 1-Bromopropane
• Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
• Captafol
• Carbon tetrachloride
• Ceramic fibers (respirable size)
• Chloramphenicol
• Chlorendic acid
• Chlorinated paraffins (C12, 60% chlorine)
• Chloroform
• 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea
• Bis(chloroethyl) nitrosourea
• 3-Chloro-2-methylpropene
• 4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine
• Chloroprene
• p-Chloro-o-toluidine and p-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride
• Chlorozotocin
• Cisplatin
• Cobalt sulfate
• Cobalt-tungsten carbide: powders and hard metals
• p-Cresidine
• Cumene
• Cupferron
• Dacarbazine
• Danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone)
• 2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate
• 2,4-Diaminotoluene
• Diazoaminobenzene
• Dibenz[a,h]acridine
• Dibenz[a,j]acridine
• Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
• 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
• Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene
• Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene
• Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene
• Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
• 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
• 1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide)
• 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol
• Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
• 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
• 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride
• Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
• 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)
• Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
• 1,3-Dichloropropene (technical grade)
• Diepoxybutane
• Diesel exhaust particulates
• Diethyl sulfate
• Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
• 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine
• 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
• 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine
• Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
• 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
• Dimethyl sulfate
• Dimethylvinyl chloride
• 1,6-Dinitropyrene
• 1,8-Dinitropyrene
• 1,4-Dioxane
• Disperse blue 1
• Dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine
• Dyes metabolized to 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine
• Epichlorohydrin
• Ethylene thiourea
• Ethyl methanesulfonate
• Furan
• Glass wool fibers (inhalable)
• Glycidol
• Hexachlorobenzene
• Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers
• Hexachloroethane
• Hexamethylphosphoramide
• Hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate
• Hydrazobenzene
• Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
• Iron dextran complex
• Isoprene
• Kepone® (chlordecone)
• Lead and lead compounds
• Lindane, hexachlorocyclohexane
• 2-Methylaziridine (propylenimine)
• 5-Methylchrysene
• 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)
• 4-4'-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine
• 4,4'-Methylenedianiline and its dihydrochloride salt
• Methyleugenol
• Methyl methanesulfonate
• N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
• Metronidazole
• Michler’s ketone [4,4'-(dimethylamino) benzophenone]
• Mirex
• Naphthalene
• Nickel, metallic
• Nitrilotriacetic acid
• o-Nitroanisole
• Nitrobenzene
• 6-Nitrochrysene
• Nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether)
• Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride
• Nitromethane
• 2-Nitropropane
• 1-Nitropyrene
• 4-Nitropyrene
• N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine
• N-nitrosodiethanolamine
• N-nitrosodiethylamine
• N-nitrosodimethylamine
• N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine
• N-nitroso-N-ethylurea
• 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
• N-nitroso-N-methylurea
• N-nitrosomethylvinylamine
• N-nitrosomorpholine
• N-nitrosonornicotine
• N-nitrosopiperidine
• N-nitrosopyrrolidine
• N-nitrososarcosine
• o-Nitrotoluene
• Norethisterone
• Ochratoxin A
• 4,4'-Oxydianiline
• Oxymetholone
• Pentachlorophenol and by-products of its synthesis
• Phenacetin
• Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
• Phenolphthalein
• Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
• Phenytoin and phenytoin sodium
• Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
• Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
• Procarbazine and its hydrochloride
• Progesterone
• 1,3-Propane sultone
• beta-Propiolactone
• Propylene oxide
• Propylthiouracil
• Reserpine
• Riddelliine
• Safrole
• Selenium sulfide
• Streptozotocin
• Styrene
• Styrene-7,8-oxide
• Sulfallate
• Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
• Tetrafluoroethylene
• Tetranitromethane
• Thioacetamide
• 4,4'-Thiodianaline
• Thiourea
• Toluene diisocyanates
• Toxaphene
• Trichloroethylene
• 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
• 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
• Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
• Ultraviolet A radiation
• Ultraviolet B radiation
• Ultraviolet C radiation
• Urethane
• Vinyl bromide
• 4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide
• Vinyl fluoride

ေဒါက္တာတင့္ေဆြ
၂၇-၁ဝ-၂ဝ၁၅

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