Thursday, May 14, 2015

List of dictators အာဏာရွင္စာရင္း

အာဏာရွင္စာရင္းကို ႏိုင္ငံေရးေလ့လာသူေတြက ျပဳစုပါတယ္။ မီဒီယာကလည္းသံုးတယ္။ အာဏာရွင္ဘြဲ႔ရဘို႔ဆိုတာ တရားသျဖင့္အာဏာရယူတာ မဟုတ္သူ၊ အာဏာကို သက္ဦးဆံပိုင္သံုးစြဲသူ၊ တရားဥပေဒကိုပမာမထားပဲ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္သူ၊ မတရားနည္းသံုးျပီး တက္လာသူ၊ အာဏာသိမ္းယူသူ၊ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ေရးတည္ေဆာက္သူ၊ ဖိႏွိပ္ရက္စက္ျပီး အုပ္စိုးသူ၊ စတာေတြ ျဖစ္တယ္။ ဘုရင္ေတြ ဧကရာဇ္ေတြမဟုတ္လို႔ Modern dictators ေခတ္သစ္အာဏာရွင္လို႔လည္းေခၚပါတယ္။

သူတို႔ထဲက တခ်ိဳ႕ကို တိုင္းက်ိဳးျပည္က်ိဳးလုပ္လို႔ Benevolent dictators အက်ိဳးျပဳအာဏာရွင္လို႔ေခၚတယ္။ Necessary evil လိုလားအပ္တဲ့မေကာင္းဆိုးဝါးလို႔လည္း ေခၚတယ္။ အဲလိုအာဏာရွင္လို႔ေခၚေပမယ့္ သူ႔ေနာက္လိုက္ ဒါမွမဟုတ္ အလိုတူအလိုပါေတြ၊ ၾကည္ညိဳသူေတြက သူရဲေကာင္း၊ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ၾကီး၊ မဟာေခါင္းေဆာင္ၾကီး၊ ၾကီးျမတ္သူၾကီး၊ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးအာဇာနည္ၾကီး၊ ကယ္တင္ရွင္ၾကီး၊ အေဖၾကီး၊ စသျဖင့္ ဂုဏ္တင္ၾကတယ္။

ျမန္မာျပည္က ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ၾကီးေနဝင္းနဲ႔ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မွဴးၾကီးသန္းေရႊ ႏွစ္ေယာက္သာ စာရင္းထဲမွာပါတယ္။ သူတို႔လိုပဲဆိုးတာ တူေပမယ့္ နံပါတ္တစ္ေနရာမဟုတ္လို႔ စာရင္းထဲမထည့္သူေတြက ဒီစာရင္းထက္မ်ားတယ္။ တခ်ိဳ႕ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြက ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲနည္းနဲ႔ အာဏာရေအာင္လုပ္ယူႏိုင္ၾကလို႔ ဆိုးၾကေပမယ့္ စာရင္းထဲမပါသူေတြလည္းမ်ားတယ္။

သူမ်ားႏိုင္ငံေတြက အဲလိုေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြကို အားက်အေလးျပဳေနၾကတဲ့ ျမန္မာလူမ်ိဳးေတြလည္းရွိတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္က လက္ရွိအာဏာရွိသူေတြထဲမွာ လက္ရွိသက္ရွိအာဏာရွင္ေတြနဲ႔ မဟာမိတ္ျပဳအားကိုးရွာတဲ့သူေတြပါတယ္။

1. Gamal Abdel Nasser Egypt 1954–1970
2. Ahmed Sékou Touré Guinea 1958–1984
3. David Dacko Central African Republic 1960–1966 1979–1981
4. Kwame Nkrumah Ghana 1960–1966
5. Modibo Keita Mali 1960–1968
6. François Tombalbaye Chad 1960–1975
7. Félix Houphouët-Boigny Côte d'Ivoire 1960–1993
8. Milton Obote Uganda 1962–1972 1980–1985
9. Hastings Kamuzu Banda Malawi 1963–1994
10. Kenneth Kaunda Zambia 1964–1991
11. Houari Boumediene Algeria 1965–1978
12. Jean-Bédel Bokassa Central African Republic 1966–1979
13. Gnassingbé Eyadéma Togo 1967–2005
14. Omar Bongo Gabon 1967–2009
15. Moussa Traoré Mali 1968–1991
16. Francisco Macías Nguema Equatorial Guinea 1968–1979
17. Gaafar Nimeiry Sudan 1969–1985
18. Mohamed Siad Barre Somalia 1969–1991
19. Idi Amin Uganda 1971–1979
20. Mengistu Haile Mariam Ethiopia 1974–1991
21. Olusegun Obasanjo Nigeria 1976-1979
22. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza Burundi 1976–1987
23. Albert René Seychelles 1977–2004
24. Daniel arap Moi Kenya 1978–2002
25. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Equatorial Guinea 1979–present
26. José Eduardo dos Santos Angola 1979–present
27. João Bernardo Vieira Guinea-Bissau 1980-1984
28. Samuel K. Doe Liberia 1980–1990
29. Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe 1980–present
30. Jerry Rawlings Ghana 1981-1992
31. André Kolingba Central African Republic 1981–1993
32. Paul Biya Cameroon 1982–present
33. Hissène Habré Chad 1982–1990
34. Thomas Sankara Burkina Faso 1983-1987
35. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya Mauritania 1984–2005
36. Ibrahim Babangida Nigeria 1985-1993
37. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Tunisia 1987–2011
38. Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir Sudan 1989–present
39. Idriss Déby Chad 1990–present
40. Sani Abacha Nigeria 1993–1998
41. Paul Kagame Rwanda 1994-present
42. Yahya Jammeh The Gambia 1994-Present
43. Laurent-Désiré Kabila Congo-Kinshasa 1997–2001
44. Charles G. Taylor Liberia 1997–2003
45. François Bozizé Central African Republic 2003–2013
46. Ely Ould Mohamed Vall Mauritania 2005-2007
47. Michael Sata Zambia 2011–2014
48. Mohamed Morsi Egypt 2012–2013
49. Agustín de Iturbide Mexico 1822 - 1823
50. Antonio López de Santa Anna Mexico 1833 - 1855
51. Porfirio Díaz Mexico 1879 – 1910
52. Victoriano Huerta Mexico 1913 - 1914
53. Rafael Carrera Guatemala 1844–1848
54. William Walker Nicaragua 1856-1857
55. Justo Rufino Barrios Guatemala 1873–1885
56. Manuel Estrada Cabrera Guatemala 1898–1920
57. Maximiliano Hernández Martínez El Salvador 1931–1934
58. Jorge Ubico Guatemala 1931–1944
59. Tiburcio Carías Andino Honduras 1933–1949
60. Carlos Castillo Armas Guatemala 1954–1957
61. Oswaldo López Arellano Honduras 1963–1971
62. Omar Torrijos Panama 1968–1981
63. Daniel Ortega Nicaragua 1979-1990
64. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia Paraguay 1813-1814 and 1814-1840
65. Simón Bolívar Gran Columbia 1821-1830
66. Juan Manuel de Rosas Argentina 1835–1852
67. Carlos Antonio López Paraguay 1841–1862
68. Manuel Belzu Bolivia 1848–1855
69. Francisco Solano López Paraguay 1862–1869
70. Mariano Melgarejo Bolivia 1864–1871
71. Antonio Guzmán Blanco Venezuela 1870–1888
72. Cipriano Castro Venezuela 1899–1909
73. Rafael Reyes Colombia 1904–1909
74. Juan Vicente Gómez Venezuela 1909–1914
75. Óscar Benavides Peru 1914–1915
76. Augusto Leguía Peru 1919–1930
77. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Chile 1927–1931
78. Getúlio Vargas Brazil 1930–1934
79. Gabriel Terra Uruguay 1931–1938
80. Higinio Morínigo Paraguay 1940–1948
81. Manuel Odría Peru 1948–1956
82. Marcos Pérez Jiménez Venezuela 1948–1958
83. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla Colombia 1953–1957
84. Alfredo Stroessner Paraguay 1954–1989
85. Humberto Castelo Branco Brazil 1964–1967
86. René Barrientos Bolivia 1964–1969
87. Forbes Burnham Guyana 1966–1985
88. Artur da Costa e Silva Brazil 1967–1969
89. Emílio Garrastazu Médici Brazil 1969–1974
90. Juan María Bordaberry Uruguay 1972–1976
91. Augusto Pinochet Chile 1973–1990
92. Ernesto Geisel Brazil 1974-1979
93. Jorge Rafael Videla Argentina 1976–1981
94. João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo Brazil 1979-1985
95. Dési Bouterse Suriname 1980–1988
96. Luis García Meza Tejada Bolivia 1980–1981
97. Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Uruguay 1981–1985
98. Leopoldo Galtieri Argentina 1981–1982
99. Alberto Fujimori Peru 1992-1993
100. Hugo Chávez Venezuela 1999-2013
101. Nicolás Maduro Venezuela 2013-present
102. Jean-Jacques Dessalines Haiti 1804-1806
103. Buenaventura Báez Dominican Republic 1849-1878 (intermittent)
104. Gerardo Machado Cuba 1925-1933
105. Rafael Trujillo Dominican Republic 1930-1961
106. Paul Magloire Haiti 1950-1956
107. François Duvalier Haiti 1957-1971
108. Fidel Castro Cuba 1959-2006
109. Jean-Claude Duvalier Haiti 1971-1986
110. Eric Gairy Grenada 1974-1979
111. Raoul Cédras Haiti 1991-1994
112. Raul Castro Cuba 2006-present
113. Abdul Karim Qassem Iraq 1958–1963
114. Abdul Salam Arif Iraq 1963–1966
115. Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr Iraq 1968–1979
116. Hafez al-Assad Syria 1970–2000
117. Ruhollah Khomeini Iran 1979–1989
118. Saddam Hussein Iraq 1979–2003
119. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Iran 1989-present
120. Bashar al-Assad Syria 2000–present
121. Askar Akayev Kyrgyzstan 1990–2005
122. Islam Karimov Uzbekistan 1991–present
123. Saparmurat Niyazov Turkmenistan 1991–2006
124. Muhammed Omar Afghanistan 1996–2001
125. Ilham Aliyev Azerbaijan 2003–present
126. Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow Turkmenistan 2006-present
127. Ayub Khan Pakistan 1958–1969
128. Yahya Khan Pakistan 1969–1971
129. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom Maldives 1978–2008
130. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq Pakistan 1978–1988
131. Rahimuddin Khan Balochistan (Pakistan) 1978–1984
132. Hossain Mohammad Ershad Bangladesh 1982–1990
133. Tokugawa Ieyasu Japan 1600-1616
134. Yuan Shikai Republic of China 1912–1916
135. Horloogiyn Choybalsan Mongolia 1936–1952
136. Kim Il-sung North Korea 1948–1994
137. Ho Chi Minh North Vietnam 1945-1969
138. Sukarno Indonesia 1949-1966
139. Mao Zedong People's Republic of China 1949–1976
140. Ngô Ðình Diệm South Vietnam 1955–1963
141. Park Chung Hee South Korea 1961–1979
142. Ne Win Burma 1962–1988
143. Thanom Kittikachorn Thailand 1963–1973
144. Suharto Indonesia 1966–1998
145. Lon Nol Cambodia 1972–1975
146. Pol Pot Democratic Kampuchea 1975–1979
147. Chun Doo Hwan South Korea 1980–1988
148. Khamtai Siphandon Laos 1992–2006
149. Than Shwe Myanmar 1992–2011
150. Kim Jong-il North Korea 1994–2011
151. Sonthi Boonyaratglin Thailand 2006–2008
152. Kim Jong-un North Korea 2011-present
153. Oliver Cromwell Commonwealth of England 1649-1658
154. Maximilien Robespierre France 1793–1794
155. Napoleon Bonaparte France 1799–1814
156. Józef Grzegorz Chłopicki Poland 1830–1831
157. Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte France 1848–1870
158. Romuald Traugutt Poland 1863–1864
159. Vladimir Lenin Soviet Union 1917-1924
160. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Turkey 1918-1938
161. Benito Mussolini Italy 1922–1943, 1943-1945
162. Miguel Primo de Rivera Spain 1923–1930
163. Aleksandar Tsankov Bulgaria 1923-1926
164. Joseph Stalin Soviet Union 1924–1953
165. Ahmet Bej Zogu Albania 1925–1939
166. José Mendes Cabeçadas Portugal 1926
167. Gomes da Costa Portugal 1926
168. António Óscar Carmona Portugal 1926-1928
169. Józef Piłsudski Poland 1926–1935
170. Antanas Smetona Lithuania 1926–1940
171. António de Oliveira Salazar Portugal 1928–1968
172. Alexander I Yugoslavia 1929-1934
173. Engelbert Dollfuss Austria 1933–1934
174. Konstantin Päts Estonia 1933–1940
175. Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany 1933–1945
176. Kimon Georgiev Bulgaria 1934
177. Tsar Boris III Bulgaria 1934-1943
178. Kurt Schuschnigg Austria 1934–1938
179. Kārlis Ulmanis Latvia 1934–1940
180. Ioannis Metaxas Greece 1936–1941
181. Francisco Franco Spain 1936–1975
182. Jozef Tiso Slovakia 1939–1945
183. Ion Antonescu Romania 1940–1944
184. Philippe Pétain Vichy France 1940–1944
185. Ante Pavelić Croatia 1941–1945
186. Vidkun Quisling Norway 1942–1945
187. Ferenc Szálasi (Szálasi Ferenc) Hungary 1944–1945
188. Josip Broz Tito Yugoslavia 1944–1980
189. Enver Hoxha Albania 1944-1985
190. Mátyás Rákosi Hungary 1949-1953
191. Nikita Khrushchev Soviet Union 1953-1964
192. Todor Zhivkov Bulgaria 1956-1989
193. Antonín Novotný Czechoslovakia 1957-1968
194. Walter Ulbricht German Democratic Republic 1950/1960-1971
195. Leonid Brezhnev Soviet Union 1964–1982
196. Nicolae Ceauşescu Romania 1965–1989
197. George Papadopoulos Greece 1967–1973
198. Marcelo Caetano Portugal 1968–1974
199. Gustáv Husák Czechoslovakia 1969-1987
200. Erich Honecker German Democratic Republic 1971-1989
201. Phaedon Gizikis Greece 1973-1974
202. Wojciech Jaruzelski Poland 1981-1990
203. Yuri Andropov Soviet Union 1982-1984
204. Konstantin Chernenko Soviet Union 1984-1985
205. Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet Union 1985-1991
206. Slobodan Milošević Serbia, Yugoslavia 1989-2000
207. Alexander Lukashenko Belarus 1994-present
208. Sitiveni Rabuka Fiji 1987–1992
209. Frank Bainimarama Fiji 2006-present

ေဒါက္တာတင့္ေဆြ
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