Saturday, April 20, 2019

Essential Medicines မရွိမျဖစ္ေဆးမ်ား

WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines မရွိမျဖစ္ေဆးဝါးမ်ားစာရင္းကို ကမာၻ႔က်န္းမာေရးအဖြဲ႔ၾကီးက ၁၉၇၇ ကတည္းက ၂ ႏွစ္တခါထုတ္ျပန္တယ္။ လူၾကီးေတြအတြက္နဲ႔ ကေလးေတြအတြက္ ၂ မ်ိဳးရွိတယ္။ (ေအ-တူ-ဇက္) စာရင္းျဖစ္တယ္။ ဆင့္ပြါးစာရင္းထဲမွာ အထူးေရာဂါရွာေဖြေရး၊ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရး လိုအပ္တာေတြ ပါဝင္တယ္။

ရည္ရြယ္တာက လူအမ်ားစုအတြက္ အေျခခံ က်န္းမာေရးေစာင့္ေရွာက္မႈမွာ ေက်နပ္မႈရေစဘို႔နဲ႔ အခ်ိန္တိုင္းမွာ လံုေလာက္ေအာင္ ျဖည့္တင္းထားဘို႔ ျဖစ္တယ္။ လူအမ်ားလက္လွမ္းမီႏိုင္တဲ့ေစ်းႏွဳန္းလည္း ျဖစ္ဘို႔ျဖစ္တယ္။ ႏိုင္ငံေပါင္း ၁၅ဝ ေက်ာ္မွာ ဆိုင္ရာႏိုင္ငံအလိုက္ မရွိမျဖစ္ေဆးဝါးစာရင္း လုပ္ထားၾကတယ္။

သီအိုရီ ဒါမွမဟုတ္ ကြန္ဆက္ပ္အယူအဆကို ၁၉၇၈ အယ္လ္မာတာေၾကညာခ်က္ထဲထည့္ထားတယ္။ အလိုအပ္ဆံုး၊ အေရးအၾကီးဆံုး၊ အစားထိုးမရ၊ လူအမ်ားအတြက္ က်န္းမာေရးလိုအပ္ခ်က္လို႔ ဆိုလိုတယ္။ လက္ေတြ႔မွာခက္ပါတယ္။ ဒါနဲ႔ ၂ဝဝ၂ ခုႏွစ္မွာ မြမ္းမံခ်က္ထုတ္ရတယ္။ စာရင္းကပိုရွည္လာျပီး အတန္းအစားခြဲထားတယ္။ ဆင့္ပြါးစာရင္းထဲမွာ အထူးေရာဂါရွာေဖြေရး၊ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေရးလိုအပ္တာေတြ ပါဝင္တယ္။

ေဆးတန္ဖိုးနဲ႔ထိေရာက္မႈ အခ်ိဳးကို ေဆးထုတ္လုပ္သူေတြနဲ႔ ေဆးဝယ္သူေတြၾကား ျငင္းခုန္ေနရဆဲျဖစ္တယ္။ ဦးစားေပးေဆးအုပ္စုေတြထဲမွာ အာဟာရခ်ိဳ႕တဲ့ျခင္း၊ တီဘီေရာဂါ နဲ႔ HIV/AIDS ေရာဂါေတြပါတယ္။ စာရင္းစထုတ္ကာစ ၁၉၇၇ တံုးကစာရင္းထဲမွာ ေဆးအမယ္ေပါင္း ၁၈၆ မ်ိဳးကေန အခု ၃ဝဝ ေက်ာ္လာျပီ။ ကင္ဆာေဆးမ်ိဳးက ေနာက္မွတိုးလာတာ။ အသည္းေရာင္ (စီ) ေဆးက ေနာက္ဆံုးတိုးလာတာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

Anaesthetics
General anaesthetics and oxygen
Inhalational medicines
    Halothane
    Isoflurane
    Nitrous oxide
    Oxygen

Injectable medicines
    Ketamine
    Propofol

Local anaesthetics
    Bupivacaine
    Lidocaine
    Lidocaine/epinephrine
    Ephedrineα (not a local anaesthetic, included in this list for prevention of low blood pressure associated with spinal anaesthesia during caesarean section)

Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term procedures
    Atropine
    Midazolam
    Morphine

Medicines for pain and palliative care
Nonopioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
    Ibuprofen
    Paracetamol (acetaminophen)

Opioid analgesics
    Codeine
    Fentanyl
    Morphine
    Methadoneα

Medicines for other common symptoms in palliative care
    Amitriptyline
    Cyclizine
    Dexamethasone
    Diazepam
    Docusate sodium
    Fluoxetine
    Haloperidol
    Hyoscine butylbromide
    Hyoscine hydrobromide
    Lactulose
    Loperamide
    Metoclopramide
    Midazolam
    Ondansetron
    Senna

Antiallergics and medicines used in anaphylaxis
    Dexamethasone
    Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    Hydrocortisone
    Loratadine
    Prednisolone

Antidotes and other substances used in poisonings
Nonspecific
    Charcoal, activated

Specific
    Acetylcysteine
    Atropine
    Calcium gluconate
    Methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue)
    Naloxone
    Penicillamine
    Prussian blue
    Sodium nitrite
    Sodium thiosulfate
    Deferoxamineα
    Dimercaprolα
    Fomepizoleα
    Sodium calcium edetateα
    Succimerα

Anticonvulsive medication
    Carbamazepine
    Diazepam
    Lamotrigine
    Lorazepam
    Magnesium sulfate
    Midazolam
    Phenobarbital
    Phenytoin
    Valproic acid (sodium valproate)
    Ethosuximideα

Anti-infective medicines
Antihelminthics
Intestinal antihelminthics

A skeletal model of the chemical structure of albendazole
    Albendazole
    Ivermectin
    Levamisole
    Mebendazole
    Niclosamide
    Praziquantel
    Pyrantel

Antifilarials
    Albendazole
    Diethylcarbamazine
    Ivermectin

Antischistosomals and other antinematode medicines
    Praziquantel
    Triclabendazole
    Oxamniquineα

Antibiotics
Beta Lactam medicines
    Amoxicillin
    Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid)
    Ampicillin
    Benzathine benzylpenicillin
    Benzylpenicillin
    Cefalexin
    Cefazolin
    Cefixime
    Cefotaxime
    Ceftriaxone
    Cloxacillin
    Phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V)
    Piperacillin/tazobactam
    Procaine benzylpenicillin
    Ceftazidimeα
    Meropenemα
    Aztreonamα
    Imipenem/cilastatinα

Other antibacterials
    Amikacin
    Azithromycin
    Chloramphenicol
    Ciprofloxacin
    Clarithromycin
    Clindamycin
    Doxycycline
    Gentamicin
    Metronidazole
    Nitrofurantoin
    Spectinomycin
    Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
    Vancomycin

Antileprosy medicines
    Clofazimine
    Dapsone
    Rifampicin

Antituberculosis medicines
Pure crystals of ethambutol
    Ethambutol
    Ethambutol/isoniazid (ethambutol + isoniazid)
    Ethambutol/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin)
    Ethambutol/isoniazid/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid + rifampicin)
    Isoniazid
    Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampicin (isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin)
    Isoniazid/rifampicin (isoniazid + rifampicin)
    Pyrazinamide
    Rifabutin
    Rifampicin
    Rifapentine
    Amikacinα
    Bedaquilineα
    Capreomycinα
    Clofazimineα
    Cycloserineα
    Delamanidα
    Ethionamideα
    Kanamycinα
    Levofloxacinα
    Linezolidα
    Moxifloxacin
    p-aminosalicylic acidα
    Streptomycinα

Antifungal medicines
    Amphotericin B
    Clotrimazole
    Fluconazole
    Flucytosine
    Griseofulvin
    Itraconazole
    Nystatin
    Voriconazole
    Potassium iodideα

Antiviral medicines
Antiherpes medicines
    Aciclovir

Antiretrovirals
Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Abacavir (ABC)
    Lamivudine (3TC)
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)
    Zidovudine (ZDV or AZT)

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Efavirenz (EGV or EFZ)
    Nevirapine (NVP)

Protease inhibitors
Two capsules of atazanavir
    Atazanavir
    Atazanavir/ritonavir
    Darunavir
    Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)
    Ritonavir

Integrase inhibitors
    Dolutegravir
    Raltegravir

Fixed-dose combinations
    Abacavir/lamivudine
    Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir
    Efavirenz/lamivudine/tenofovir
    Emtricitabine/tenofovir
    Lamivudine/nevirapine/zidovudine
    Lamivudine/zidovudine

Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infections
    Isoniazid/pyridoxine/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim

Other antivirals
    Ribavirin
    Valganciclovir
    Oseltamivirα

Antihepatitis medicines
Medicines for hepatitis B

Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Entecavir
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)

Medicines for hepatitis C
Nucleotide polymerase inhibitors
    Sofosbuvir

Protease inhibitors
    Simeprevir

NS5A inhibitors
    Daclatasvir

Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors
    Dasabuvir

Other antivirals
    Ribavirin
    Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a or pegylated interferon-alpha-2bα

Fixed-dose combinations
    Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir
    Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir
    Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir

Antiprotozoal medicines
Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicines
    Diloxanide
    Metronidazole

Antileishmaniasis medicines
    Amphotericin B
    Miltefosine
    Paromomycin
    Sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate

Antimalarial medicines
For curative treatment

    Amodiaquine
    Artemether
    Artemether/lumefantrine
    Artesunate
    Artesunate/amodiaquine
    Artesunate/mefloquine
    Artesunate/pyronaridine
    Chloroquine
    Dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine
    Doxycycline
    Mefloquine
    Primaquine
    Quinine
    Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine

For prevention
    Chloroquine
    Doxycycline
    Mefloquine
    Proguanil

Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicines
    Pyrimethamine
    Sulfadiazine
    Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim
    Pentamidineα

Antitrypanosomal medicines
African trypanosomiasis
1st stage

    Pentamidine
    Suramin sodium

2nd stage
    Eflornithine
    Melarsoprol
    Nifurtimox

American trypanosomiasis
    Benznidazole
    Nifurtimox

Antimigraine medicines
Acute attack
    Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)
    Ibuprofen
    Paracetamol

Prevention
    Propranolol

Antineoplastic and immunosuppressives
Immunosuppressive medicines
    Azathioprineα
    Ciclosporinα

Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines
    All-trans retinoic acid (tretinoin)α
    Allopurinolα
    Asparaginaseα
    Bendamustineα
    Bleomycinα
    Calcium folinateα
    Capecitabineα
    Carboplatinα
    Chlorambucilα
    Cisplatinα
    Cyclophosphamideα
    Cytarabineα
    Dacarbazineα
    Dactinomycinα
    Dasatinibα
    Daunorubicinα
    Docetaxelα
    Doxorubicinα
    Etoposideα
    Filgrastimα
    Fludarabineα
    Fluorouracilα
    Gemcitabineα
    Hydroxycarbamideα
    Ifosfamideα
    Imatinibα
    Irinotecanα
    Mercaptopurineα
    Mesnaα
    Methotrexateα
    Nilotinibα
    Oxaliplatinα
    Paclitaxelα
    Procarbazineα
    Rituximabα
    Thioguanineα
    Trastuzumabα
    Vinblastineα
    Vincristineα
    Vinorelbineα
    Zoledronic acidα

Hormones and antihormones
    Anastrozoleα
    Bicalutamideα
    Dexamethasoneα
    Hydrocortisoneα
    Leuprorelinα
    Methylprednisoloneα
    Prednisoloneα
    Tamoxifenα

Antiparkinsonism medicines
    Biperiden
    Carbidopa/levodopa (levodopa + carbidopa)

Medicines affecting the blood
Antianaemia medicines
    Ferrous salt
    Ferrous salt/folic acid
    Folic acid
    Hydroxocobalamin
    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agentsα

Medicines affecting coagulation
    Enoxaparin
    Heparin sodium
    Phytomenadione
    Protamine sulfate
    Tranexamic acid
    Warfarin
    Desmopressinα

Other medicines for haemoglobinopathies
    Deferoxamineα
    Hydroxycarbamideα

Blood products and plasma substitutes of human origin
Blood and blood components
A straw colored liquid inside a clear plastic bag
Bag containing one unit of fresh frozen plasma
    Fresh frozen plasma
    Platelet concentrates
    Packed red blood cells
    Whole blood

Plasma-derived medicines
Human immunoglobulins
    Rho(D) immune globulin
    Anti-rabies immunoglobulin
    Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin
    Human normal immunoglobulinα

Blood coagulation factors

    Coagulation factor VIIIα
    Coagulation factor IXα

Plasma substitutes
    Dextran 70

Cardiovascular medicines
Antianginal medicines
    Bisoprolol
    Glyceryl trinitrate
    Isosorbide dinitrate
    Verapamil

Antiarrhythmic medicines
    Bisoprolol
    Digoxin
    Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    Lidocaine
    Verapamil
    Amiodaroneα

Antihypertensive medicines
    Amlodipine
    Bisoprolol
    Enalapril
    Hydralazine
    Hydrochlorothiazide
    Methyldopa
    Losartan
    Sodium nitroprussideα

Medicines used in heart failure
    Bisoprolol
    Digoxin
    Enalapril
    Furosemide
    Hydrochlorothiazide
    Losartan
    Spironolactone
    Dopamineα

Antithrombotic medicines
Anti-platelet medicines
    Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
    Clopidogrel

Thrombolytic medicines
    Streptokinaseα

Lipid-lowering agents
    Simvastatin

Dermatological (topical)
Antifungal medicines
    Miconazole
    Selenium sulfide
    Sodium thiosulfate
    Terbinafine

Anti-infective medicines
    Mupirocin
    Potassium permanganate
    Silver sulfadiazine

Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicines
    Betamethasone
    Calamine
    Hydrocortisone

Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferation
    Benzoyl peroxide
    Coal tar
    Fluorouracil
    Podophyllum resin
    Salicylic acid
    Urea

Scabicides and pediculicides
    Benzyl benzoate
    Permethrin

Diagnostic agents
Ophthalmic medicines
    Fluorescein
    Tropicamide

Radiocontrast media
    Amidotrizoate
    Barium sulfate
    Iohexol
    Meglumine iotroxateα

Disinfectants and antiseptics
Antiseptics

    Chlorhexidine
    Ethanol
    Povidone iodine

Disinfectants
    Alcohol based hand rub
    Chlorine base compound
    Chloroxylenol
    Glutaral

Diuretics
    Amiloride
    Furosemide
    Hydrochlorothiazide
    Mannitol
    Spironolactone

Gastrointestinal medicines
    Pancreatic enzymesα

Antiulcer medicines
    Omeprazole
    Ranitidine

Antiemetic medicines
    Dexamethasone
    Metoclopramide
    Ondansetron

Anti-inflammatory medicines
    Sulfasalazine
    Hydrocortisoneα

Laxatives
    Senna

Medicines used in diarrhea
Oral rehydration
    Oral rehydration salts

Medicines for diarrhea in children
    Zinc sulfate

Hormones, other endocrine medicines, and contraceptives
Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes
    Fludrocortisone
    Hydrocortisone

Androgens
    Testosteroneα

Contraceptives
Oral hormonal contraceptives
    Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel
    Ethinylestradiol/norethisterone
    Levonorgestrel
    Ulipristal

Injectable hormonal contraceptives
    Estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate
    Medroxyprogesterone acetate
    Norethisterone enantate

Intrauterine devices
    IUD with copper
    IUD with progestogen

Barrier methods
    Condoms
    Diaphragms

Implantable contraceptives
    Etonogestrel—releasing implant
    Levonorgestrel—releasing implant

Intravaginal contraceptives
    Progesterone vaginal ring

Insulins and other medicines used for diabetes
    Gliclazide
    Glucagon
    Insulin injection (soluble)
    Intermediate-acting insulin
    Metformin

Ovulation inducers
    Clomifeneα

Progestogens
    Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines
    Levothyroxine
    Potassium iodide
    Propylthiouracil
    Lugol's solutionα

Immunologicals
Diagnostic agents

    Tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD)
Sera and immunoglobulins
    Antivenom immunoglobulin
    Diphtheria antitoxin

Vaccines
A small vial with writing on it being removed from a cardboard package
A vial of oral cholera vaccine
    BCG vaccine
    Cholera vaccine
    Diphtheria vaccine
    Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
    Hepatitis A vaccine
    Hepatitis B vaccine
    HPV vaccine
    Influenza vaccine
    Japanese encephalitis vaccine
    Measles vaccine
    Meningococcal meningitis vaccine
    Mumps vaccine
    Pertussis vaccine
    Pneumococcal vaccine
    Poliomyelitis vaccine
    Rabies vaccine
    Rotavirus vaccine
    Rubella vaccine
    Tetanus vaccine
    Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
    Typhoid vaccine
    Varicella vaccine
    Yellow fever vaccine

Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitors
    Atracurium
    Neostigmine
    Suxamethonium
    Vecuronium
    Pyridostigmineα

Eye preparations
Anti-infective agents
    Aciclovir
    Azithromycin
    Erythromycin
    Gentamicin
    Natamycin
    Ofloxacin
    Tetracycline

Anti-inflammatory agents
    Prednisolone

Local anesthetics
    Tetracaine

Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines
    Acetazolamide
    Latanoprost
    Pilocarpine
    Timolol

Mydriatics
    Atropine
    Epinephrine (adrenaline)α

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
    Bevacizumabα

Oxytocics and abortifacients
    Ergometrine
    Misoprostol
    Oxytocin
    Mifepristone used with misoprostolα[note 52]

Antioxytocics (tocolytics)
    Nifedipine

Peritoneal dialysis solution
    Intraperitoneal dialysis solution (of appropriate composition)α

Medicines for mental and behavioural disorders
Medicines used in psychotic disorders
    Chlorpromazine
    Fluphenazine
    Haloperidol
    Risperidone
    Clozapineα

Medicines used in mood disorders
Medicines used in depressive disorders
    Amitriptyline
    Fluoxetine

Medicines used in bipolar disorders
    Carbamazepine
    Lithium
    Valproic acid (sodium valproate)

Medicines for anxiety disorders
    Diazepam

Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders
    Clomipramine

Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance use
    Nicotine replacement therapy
    Methadoneα

Medicines acting on the respiratory tract
Antiasthmatic and medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Beclometasone
    Budesonide
    Budesonide/formoterol
    Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    Ipratropium bromide
    Salbutamol (albuterol)

Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances
Oral
    Oral rehydration salts
    Potassium chloride

Parenteral
    Glucose
    Glucose with sodium chloride
    Potassium chloride
    Sodium chloride
    Sodium hydrogen carbonate
    Sodium lactate, compound solution

Miscellaneous
    Water for injection

Vitamins and minerals
    Ascorbic acid
    Calcium
    Cholecalciferol
    Ergocalciferol
    Iodine
    Nicotinamide
    Pyridoxine
    Retinol
    Riboflavin
    Sodium fluoride
    Thiamine
    Calcium gluconateα

Ear, nose and throat medicines in children
    Acetic acid
    Budesonide
    Ciprofloxacin
    Xylometazoline

Specific medicines for neonatal care
Medicines administered to the neonate
    Caffeine citrate
    Chlorhexidine
    Ibuprofenα
    Prostaglandin Eα
        Prostaglandin E1
        Prostaglandin E2
    Surfactantα

Medicines administered to the mother
    Dexamethasone

Medicines for diseases of joints
Medicines used to treat gout
    Allopurinol

Disease-modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders
    Chloroquine
    Azathioprineα
    Hydroxychloroquineα
    Methotrexateα
    Penicillamineα
    Sulfasalazineα

Juvenile joint diseases
    Aspirin

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ဆိုရွယ္လစ္ေခတ္၏ ေကာင္းကြက္ကိုရွာျခင္း

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